Head Injury is a general term used to describe any trauma to the head, and most specifically to the brain itself.
Skull Fracture: A skull fracture is a break in the bone surrounding the brain and other structures within the skull.
Linear Skull Fracture: A common injury, especially in children. A linear skull fracture is a simple break in the skull that follows a relatively straight line. It can occur after seemingly minor head injuries (falls, blows such as being struck by a rock, stick or other object or from motor vehicle accidents). A linear skull fracture is not a serious injury unless there is an additional injury to the brain itself.
Depressed Skull Fracture: This is common after forceful impact by blunt objects most commonly, hammers, rocks, or other heavy but fairly small objects. This injury causes "dents" in the skull bone. If the depth of a depressed fractures is at least equal to the thickness of the surrounding skull bone (about - inch), surgery is often required to elevate the bony pieces and to inspect the brain for evidence of injury.
Basilar Skull Fracture: A fracture of the bones that form the base (floor) of the skull and results from servere blunt head trauma of significant force. A basilar skull fracture commonly connects to the sinus cavities. This connection may allow fluid or air entry into the inside of the skull and may cause infection. Surgery is usually not necessary unless other injuries are also involved.
Minor blunt head injuries: May involve only symptoms of being "dazed" or brief loss of consciousness. They may also result in headaches, blurring of vision or nausea and vomiting.
Severe blunt head trauma: Involves a loss of consciousness lasting from several minutes to many days. Seizures may result. The person may suffer from severe and sometimes permanent neurological damage or may die. Neurological damage from head trauma resemble those seen in stroke and include paralysis, seizures, difficulty in speaking, seeing, hearing, walking, or understanding.
Penetrating trauma: May cause immediate, severe symptoms or only minor symptoms despite a potentially life-threatening injury. Death may follow from the initial injury. Any of the serious blunt head trauma may result.
Emergency personnel should immediately attend to all potentially serious head injuries.