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Eye Diseases Management

Retinal Diseases & Management

Retinal is the light-sensitive layer of the eye. Any disease affecting this layer results in the visual disturbance. A complete evaluation of the retina is necessary during the routine examination to identify any silent retinal problems. Proper evaluation of the retina is performed using indirect ophthalmoscopy and 78D lens.

Retinal holes or Tears

These problems increase the risk of retinal detachment and hence often require laser treatment or cryotherapy to seal them. Other common conditions affecting the retina include Diabetic Retinopathy, occlusion of retinal blood vessels, bleeding inside the eye and age-related muscular degeneration.

Fundus Photographs

The photographs are taken to document treatment. Patients can also keep a copy of this photograph for their records.

Fundus Fluorescein Angiography

The procedure is performed to identify the disease, know its extent and to plan treatment.

Green Diode (Iris Medical) or Argon Laser

This helps in the treatment of various retinal diseases including retinal holes and diabetic retinopathy. Both slit-lamp delivery mode and the Laser Indirect Ophthalmoscopic Delivery System are available to ensure optimal treatment of all cases.

Surgical intervention is necessary if the retina shifts from its normal position or if bleeding inside the eye persists for a long duration. The AMO Gemini, a newer generation Vitrectomy System, with the Iris Medical Green Diode Endolaser helps perform safe surgery to ensure optimal visual recovery.

Corneal Diseases & Management

The cornea is a clear glass-like structure in front of the eye. Any disease affecting this structure results in loss of corneal clarity and thereby affecting vision. Corneal scarring can result from infections and trauma (mechanical, thermal or chemical). Abnormalities in corneal shape like keratoconus result from inherent structural abnormally and also affect vision.

Some of these conditions can be managed with semi-soft contact lens wear. However, some of these patients require surgical intervention. Besides conventional full-thickness corneal transplantation, newer modalities of treatment such as Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty (DALK) are performed for better visual outcome. The host endothelial layer is retained; hence there is no risk of rejection, unlike conventional corneal grafts.

The innermost layer of the corneal may become dysfunctional in certain conditions and result in clouding of the cornea. This usually requires full-thickness corneal transplantation surgery to restore corneal clarity. Newer surgical techniques such as Deep Lamellar Endothelial Keratoplasty (DLEK) allow surgical replacement of the corneal endothelium without any surface incisions or sutures.

Corneal scarring can also affect newborn children and often require early surgical intervention to prevent visual deprivation and loss of visual development.

Infections of the cornea are not uncommon and require immediate attention. Microbiological tests are necessary to identify the causative organism and initiate appropriate medical therapy. Surgical interventions may be necessary in cases with advances infections.

Ocular surface reconstruction is necessary in cases following chemical or thermal injury, extensive ocular surface tumours or infections. Surface reconstruction is performed using amniotic membrane and limbal transplantation.

Dry Eye

Dryness of the eye is a common clinical entity. This can result from a variety of conditions; hence proper assessment is essential to manage this condition. The ocular surface clinic at Apollo Hospitals specializes in the management of this condition.

Excessive use of computers can result in ocular fatigue and other symptoms. Complete evaluation of the eye, along with modifications in working habits are required to manage this condition.


Uveitis is swelling of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye. It is usually an autoimmune problem though in some patients it may be due to infections such as herpes, toxoplasmosis or tuberculosis. It may be a one-time event or may occur repeatedly.

Untreated uveitis is a serious condition that may scar the retina cause glaucoma or cataract. Management requires a detailed examination of the eye, appropriate investigations and accurate diagnosis. Each case requires a different management approach tailored to the specific features of that case.


HIV infection causes the immune system of the body to become weak. This can result in various blinding infections in the eye. The proper examination allows diagnosis and appropriate management, sometimes in consultation with our physicians. Absolute confidentiality is maintained at each step.

Emergency & Trauma Services

24 hours emergency services are available to manage any acute eye condition such as chemical thermal injury, trauma, infections etc. proper management of these conditions can help prevent permanent visual loss.

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