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    Thrombosis and Prothrombotic Conditions
    Banner - Cancer Institute Apollo Hospital - Bangalore

    Thrombosis and Prothrombotic Conditions

    When a blood clot develops inside the veins, the condition is known as venous thromboembolism, which is a prothrombotic condition. It can lead to pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Alternatively, atherothrombosis refers to the condition where blood clots develop within the arteries, leading to heart attacks and strokes. Thrombosis can be triggered by various medical disorders, surgeries, or prolonged bed rest, causing excruciating limb discomfort and swelling. As these blood clots travel through the bloodstream and settle in the lungs, they can block the blood supply, resulting in a condition called pulmonary embolism. It is important to recognize the early signs of thrombosis so that patients can seek prompt medical attention.

    Sign and Symptoms

    Thrombosis symptoms can be unpleasant or uncomfortable. These are:

    • Leg heaviness, excruciating pain, cramps, and uneasiness
    • Swelling of the leg
    • Difficulty in breathing
    • Chest pain and discomfort accompanied by heavy breathing
    • Itching and discomfort throughout the leg
    • Persistent pain and a warm sensation in the leg
    • discolouration, thickening, or development of ulcers on the leg skin
    • Coughing with bloody remnants
    • Rapid increase in pulse rate
    • Fatigue, weakness, lightheadedness, and fainting
    • Discomfort in the chest while coughing


    Several factors can contribute to thrombosis and a prothrombotic condition. These include:

    • Damage to an artery or vein
    • Surgery
    • Major accidents
    • Inherited genetic conditions that cause blood clots
    • Restricted leg mobility due to bed rest
    • Inherited blood disorders that can lead to serious health conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, cancer, or heart disease
    • Certain medications
    • Smoking, as it increases the weight of blood cells, weakens blood arteries, and makes it easier for clots to form.

    When to visit a doctor?

    One should see a doctor in case of:

    • Leg discomfort, swelling, and discolouration.
    • Chest pain and a heaviness
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Low blood pressure and extreme dizziness


    To confirm thrombosis and a prothrombotic condition, the doctor will first inquire about the symptoms and examine the affected area for any swelling, lumps, or discolouration. They may then perform various tests, which can include:

    • Ultrasound Doppler test
    • Blood test such as D dimer test
    • CT scan
    • MRI Scan
    • Venography

    Treatment Options at Apollo Hospital, Karnataka

    • Anticoagulants – The most popular method of treating thrombosis and prothrombotic conditions is by using anticoagulants, also known as “blood thinners.” These injections and tablets reduce the blood’s capacity to clot.
    • Clot Buster – Thrombolytic medications are administered if the patient is at a higher risk of developing a pulmonary embolism from thrombosis. These medicines enable blood to flow again by dissolving the clots.
    • IVC Filters – When thrombosis and prothrombotic conditions are present alongside additional medical conditions such as bleeding issues, circulation problems, failure of blood thinners, or pregnancy, doctors may recommend this treatment option.
    • Compression stockings – To prevent blood clots, the doctor may advise wearing compression stockings. These stockings also help reduce swelling caused by thrombosis.
    • Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis – The doctor may recommend a thrombolytic agent, a medication that dissolves blood clots. During this treatment, a clot is dislodged, improving blood flow.
    • Surgery – If there are significant blood clots, the doctor may advise thrombectomy surgery. In this procedure, the surgeon removes the clot by making a small incision in the blood artery.

    Risk Factors

    The possibility of thrombosis and prothrombotic conditions is influenced by a number of factors. Here are some of them:

    • If a joint or bone is in a cast or brace to avoid any injury, this procedure takes place.
    • Hypercoagulability, or an increase in blood clot formation, can increase the risk of thrombosis.
    • Orthopaedic surgery, including knee surgery, increases the risk of thrombosis.
    • Birth control tablets or hormone replacement treatment (HRT) can worsen blood clotting.
    • During pregnancy, the patient’s legs and pelvic veins bear all the weight or pressure, and this risk continues for another six weeks after childbirth.
    • Being overweight has similar effects to those of pregnancy on the legs, increasing the risk of thrombosis and prothrombotic conditions due to increased pressure in the legs and pelvic area.
    • Several cancer types and cancer treatments cause blood to clot more frequently.
    • While thrombosis and prothrombotic conditions can occur at any age, the risk is increased in those over 60.


    To avoid developing thrombosis and prothrombotic conditions, one should take the following precautions:

    • The risk of thrombosis can be decreased by limiting extended periods of sitting.
    • After surgery or bed rest, it is important to try and maintain leg motion.
    • When seated, it is advisable not to cross the legs. If driving long distances, taking a break every hour to stretch the legs is recommended.
    • Maintaining a healthy lifestyle will help prevent various ailments, including thrombosis.
    • If overweight, it is recommended to reduce weight.
    • Regular exercise can also lower the risk of vascular blood clots.

    The department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology at Apollo Hospital, Karnataka, is renowned as one of the top divisions. The team of hepatology doctors and surgeons is highly skilled and carries out interventional procedures and surgeries with utmost care, achieving excellent outcomes. Our medical team, consisting of experienced professionals in the field of gastroenterology, stays updated with the latest treatment and diagnostic technology to ensure that our patients receive the best possible care.

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