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    Bone Tumours
    Banner - Cancer Institute Apollo Hospital - Bangalore

    Bone Tumours

    Bone tumours originate when cells within a bone proliferate uncontrollably, resulting in the formation of a lump or mass of aberrant tissue. Any bone in the body can be affected by bone tumours, which can grow in any area of the bone, from the surface to the bone’s marrow.

    The majority of bone tumours are benign (not cancerous). In most situations, benign tumours do not pose a threat to life and do not spread to other bodily regions. Some bone tumours are malignant or cancerous. Malignant bone tumours can metastasise or cause cancer cells to spread throughout the body. Even a benign bone tumour that is developing kills good bone tissue and weakens it, making the bone more brittle and susceptible to fracture.

    Types of Bone Tumours

    Benign or Non – Cancerous Tumour

    • Osteochondromas – Osteochondromas are the most typical kind of benign bone tumour. Adolescents and teens usually have osteochondromas’ onset. These tumours usually develop near the actively developing ends of long bones, such as arm or leg bones.
    • Giant Cell Tumours – Giant cell tumours spread quickly, and they mostly affect adults. Instead of the growth plate, they are located in the rounded end of the bone and are relatively uncommon.
    • Fibrous Dysplasia – A gene mutation known as Fibrous Dysplasia causes the bones to become fibrous and brittle.
    • Aneurysmal Bone Cyst – A blood vessel abnormality called an aneurysmal bone cyst starts in the bone marrow. It has a quick growth rate, and because it disrupts growth plates, it can be extremely harmful.

    Malignant or Cancerous Bone Tumours

    • Osteosarcoma – Osteosarcoma is the second most prevalent kind of bone cancer, usually affecting children and teenagers. This often manifests at the knee, shoulder, or hip. Osteogenic Sarcoma is another name for Osteosarcoma.
    • Chondrosarcoma – Chondrosarcoma is more likely to occur in middle-aged and older persons than in other age groups. In the hips, shoulders, and pelvis, this form of bone cancer usually shows itself.
    • Ewing’s Sarcoma – Typically, the tumour develops in the pelvis, legs, or arms, and children & young adults are typically affected by it.

    Causes of Bone Tumours

    It is unknown what is the root cause of bone tumours. However, a few potential causes include genetics, radiation therapy, and bone traumas. The use of additional anticancer medications and radiation therapy, particularly high doses of radiation, have been related to Osteosarcoma, particularly in youngsters. When certain bodily regions are expanding quickly without any control, tumours often develop. Osteosarcoma is more likely to subsequently develop in those who have had bone fractures fixed with metal implants.

    Identifying Possible Symptoms of Bone Tumours

    The most typical sign of bone cancer is a dull aching in the damaged bone. The discomfort first only occurs sometimes before becoming intense and ongoing. One can be awakened in the middle of the night by the pain. When a person has an undiagnosed bone tumour, it is possible for what appears to be a minor injury to shatter the already fragile bone, causing excruciating pain. An example of this complication is a Pathologic Fracture. There may occasionally be swelling where the tumour is located.

    Alternatively, the patient could not feel any pain yet discover a fresh mass of tissue in a certain area of the body. Fever and/or nocturnal sweats are additional side effects or symptoms of tumours. It’s possible that people with benign tumours show no symptoms. It’s also possible that the tumour won’t be found until after other medical tests when an imaging scan exposes it. A benign bone tumour, such as an osteochondroma, can also start to affect daily function and movement.

    Diagnosis of a Bone Tumour

    Doctors may recommend a number of tests to confirm whether a patient has a bone tumour. The doctor will first do a physical examination concentrating on the probable tumour’s location. They will also inquire about the medical background of the patient’s family. Here are the diagnostic tests.

    • Radionuclide Bone Scan – This may help in determining if cancer has spread to more bones. In addition to being more accurate than X-rays, it can also find the locations of smaller metastasized tumours.
    • X-rays – X-rays are often useful in the early detection of bone cancer. Additionally, a chest X-ray reveals whether lung cancer has spread.
    • MRI Scan – This gives the tumour outline.
    • PET Scan – The entire body is scanned during this process to look for tumours.
    • Biopsies – A biopsy may be recommended by the doctor. The tissue that makes up the tumour will be sampled during this procedure. In a laboratory, a microscope is used to inspect the sample.

    Treatment of Bone Tumour

    The doctor will decide on the best course of treatment, depending on the patient’s condition. They can choose the best course of action for a particular kind of bone cancer. The possible treatments are as follows:

    • Surgery – Surgical approach is the most common form of treatment for bone cancer, and it tries to eliminate the entire tumour as well as some adjacent bone structures.
    • Chemotherapy – Anticancer medications are used during this procedure to eradicate malignant cells. Chondrosarcoma is not responsive to treatment, although Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma do.
    • Radiation Therapy – The radiology team uses strong X-rays to specifically target cancer cells during this procedure. To remove the tumour, doctors may choose chemotherapy in addition to surgery.
    • Cryosurgery – This is an alternative to surgery for the removal of tumours from the bone tissue.

    Bone Tumour Treatment at Apollo Hospitals, Karnataka

    Apollo Hospitals, Karnataka, specialises in bone tumour care, and there is a specialised surgical team that concentrates on bone tumour management. Any kind of orthopaedic oncological problems can be treated by our skilled staff. For the treatment of bone tumours, we are equipped with the expertise, resources, and advanced technology. We also offer psychotherapy services as part of treatment to help with the healing process.

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