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    Hodgkin’s & Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas
    Banner - Cancer Institute Apollo Hospital - Bangalore

    Hodgkin’s & Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas

    Lymphocytes are an essential component of the body’s immune system that combats infection. The cancerous condition known as Lymphoma starts in the white blood cells known as lymphocytes. Lymphomas can be categorised as the following two – Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s.

    The particular type of lymphocytes that each Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma involves are their primary differences. Examining the cancer cells under a microscope makes it possible to distinguish between Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Lymphoma is categorised as Hodgkin’s if a certain cell type known as a Reed-Sternberg cell is present, whereas, in non-Hodgkin’s, the Reed-Sternberg cell is absent.

    What are the Causes of Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma?

    The symptoms of Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma are almost the same with a little difference –

    • Swollen lymph nodes in your neck
    • Chest pain, trouble breathing, and coughing
    • Fever
    • Night Sweat
    • Sudden weight loss
    • Persistent fatigue
    • Abdominal Pain & Swelling

    The symptoms are the same in both conditions. However, in Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, the patient experiences severe itching and pain in the lymph nodes after consuming alcohol.

    What Causes Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma?

    The cause of Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma is not known yet. However, the only thing the doctors know is that – it begins when the DNA modifications occur in the infection-fighting white blood cells called lymphocytes. When other cells would normally die, the DNA modifications instruct the cells to reproduce quickly and to stay alive. Many healthy immune system cells are drawn to the lymphoma cells, protecting and promoting their growth. The signs and symptoms of the condition, such as swelling, are brought on by the excess cells cramming into the lymph nodes.

    On the other hand, Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma starts when your body makes an excessive number of aberrant lymphocytes, a category of white blood cells. Lymphocytes typically follow a predictable life cycle. Your body produces new lymphocytes to replace old ones as they expire. Your lymphocytes do not die in non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, and your body continues to produce new ones. Your lymph nodes enlarge due to the excess lymphocytes cramming them inside.

    How is Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Diagnosed?

    Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma is diagnosed in similar ways. Both conditions are diagnosed using the following tests.

    • Blood & Urine Tests – This is done to rule out any other infections and diseases.
    • Imaging Tests – Your doctor may advise imaging tests to look for lymphoma cells elsewhere in your body. CT, MRI, and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) are possible tests.
    • Lymph Node Tests – To remove all or part of a lymph node for laboratory testing, our doctor at Apollo Hospitals, Karnataka, may advise performing a lymph node biopsy surgery. You might be able to determine if you have non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and which type you do by examining lymph node tissue in a lab.
    • Bone Marrow Tests – A needle is inserted into the hip bone to collect a sample of your bone marrow. To find non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma cells, the collected sample is examined.
    • Physical Examination – The doctor might inquire about your symptoms and perform a physical examination. Checking for enlarged lymph nodes, such as those in your neck, underarm, and groyne, as well as a swollen spleen or liver, may be necessary for doing this.

    How are Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Treated?

    Doctors at Apollo Hospitals, Karnataka, may ask you about your current symptoms and perform a thorough physical exam. For this, it may be required to look for enlarged lymph nodes. You might not require immediate treatment if your Lymphoma seems to be slow-growing (indolent) and exhibits no symptoms. Instead, your doctor may advise scheduling routine checks every few months to monitor your health and determine whether your cancer is progressing.

    • Chemotherapy

    Chemotherapy is administering medication used to treat Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. It can be administered intravenously or orally. Medications used in chemotherapy can be used alone, in conjunction with other medications used in chemotherapy, or in combination with other therapies.

    • Radiation Therapy

    Radiation can treat Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma by targeting the afflicted lymph nodes and any surrounding sites where the disease may spread. Radiation for Hodgkin’s Lymphoma frequently goes along with chemotherapy. Whereas, for Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, radiation is used after chemotherapy. Radiation therapy might be the only option for those with early-stage nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.

    • Bone Marrow Transplant

    A bone marrow transplant, commonly called a stem cell transplant, replaces your defective bone marrow with healthy stem cells that help you grow new bone marrow. A bone marrow transplant can be an option if Hodgkin’s Lymphoma reappears or doesn’t respond to other therapies.

    • Immunotherapy

    Your immune system is used in immunotherapy to combat cancer. Due to the cancer cell’s ability to create proteins that aid in their concealment from immune system cells, your body’s disease-fighting immune system may not attack your cancer. Immunotherapy affects that process and helps in killing cancer cells by stimulating the immune system.

    • Targeted Drug Therapy

    Targeted medication therapies concentrate on particular defects that are prevalent in cancer cells. Targeted medication therapies can kill cancer cells by preventing these aberrations.

    There are numerous lymphoma subtypes. To identify your precise lymphoma subtype, we at Apollo Hospitals, Karnataka, perform tests at our highly advanced labs to study a sample of your lymphoma cells. The disease progression and available treatments vary greatly between different forms of Lymphoma. Thus, our board-certified & expert medical professionals take proper care and provide the most-effective treatment as required.

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