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    Autoimmune Hemolytic Anaemias
    Banner - Cancer Institute Apollo Hospital - Bangalore

    Autoimmune Hemolytic Anaemia Treatment in Bangalore

    Also known as AIHA, Autoimmune Hemolytic Anaemia is a rare autoimmune disease when your body mistakes Red Blood Cells (RBCs) for foreign objects and starts attacking them. It also happens when your bone marrow does not produce enough red blood cells.

    Red blood cells are produced or manufactured by the spongy material called Bone Marrow – which is present deep inside your bone. These cells usually live for about 120 days. So, if you have autoimmune hemolytic anaemia, the red blood cells are destroyed faster than the bone marrow produces them. It is usually rare in children and most commonly seen in adults.

    What are the Signs & Symptoms of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anaemias?

    Autoimmune Hemolytic Anaemia can have several signs and symptoms, and some of the common symptoms are mentioned below –

    • Fever
    • Shortness of Breath
    • Tiredness
    • Rapid Heartbeat
    • Paleness
    • Jaundice
    • Dark Pee
    • Sore Tongue
    • Heart Palpitations
    • Muscle pain
    • Weakness
    • Diarrhoea
    • Nausea & Vomiting
    • Headaches
    • Tiredness
    • Dizziness
    • Cold Hands & Feet
    • Heart Murmur
    • Heart Failure
    • Pain in the back of the legs
    • The blue colour of your hand and feet
    • Chest pain
    • Raynaud’s disease

    What Causes Autoimmune Hemolytic Anaemia?

    If you have autoimmune hemolytic anaemia, this is mainly because the immune system attacks your red blood, as it perceives them as foreign bodies. This could occur as a result of:

    • Cancer
    • Exposure to certain poisons or chemicals, such as those found in drugs or due to an infection.
    • Receiving a blood transfusion when the blood does not match the patient’s blood type.
    • Receiving a blood transfusion while pregnant with a child whose mother’s blood type differs.

    It is also caused due to the following disorders –

    • Lupus
    • Ulcerative Colitis
    • Hashimoto’s Disease
    • Thyroid Disease
    • Sjogren’s Syndrome
    • Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Also, several viruses are said to be the cause of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemias-

    • Hepatitis
    • Rubella
    • Mumps
    • Measles
    • Epstein-Barr Virus

    What is the diagnosis of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anaemia?

    A doctor will inquire about your symptoms and perform a physical checkup. They may then conduct some blood and urine tests to aid with the diagnosis.

    • Complete Blood Count

    The complete blood count (CBC) measures the various components of blood. It comprises calculating the levels of Hematocrit and Haemoglobin. The protein called haemoglobin transports oxygen throughout the body. Red blood cells’ hematocrit value reveals how much room they occupy.

    • Reticulocyte Test

    Reticulocytes, a subset of relatively immature red blood cells, are measured in this blood test. It can reveal if the bone marrow produces red blood cells at an appropriate pace. The range will be higher if the body has low haemoglobin levels due to bleeding or red cell degeneration. A high output of red blood cells could indicate anaemia.

    • Bilirubin Test

    Bile contains bilirubin, a yellow pigment that is produced by the liver. A blood test can determine the level of bilirubin in the blood. Haemoglobin enters the bloodstream when blood cells decompose. Bilirubin is produced when haemoglobin is broken down. High blood bilirubin levels can also indicate anaemia or any other condition.

    • Haptoglobin Test

    The liver makes the protein haptoglobin. It links a certain type of blood haemoglobin inside the body. Haptoglobin concentration in the blood reveals the rate of red blood cell oxidation.

    • Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)

    Red blood cells contain an enzyme called Lactate Dehydrogenase. The LDH level will increase as red blood cells are damaged.

    • Cold Agglutinin

    This test might be carried out if your doctor has a suspicion of cold-related autoimmune hemolytic anaemia. It informs your healthcare professional about the number of antibodies that target red blood cells in cold weather.

    How is Autoimmune Hemolytic Anaemia treated?

    The treatment for autoimmune hemolytic anaemia depends on its underlying factors. However, below are a few treatments offered at Apollo Hospitals, Karnataka, for the best medical outcomes-

    • Medication

    The concerned doctor may administer corticosteroids or medications with cortisone-like effects to suppress the immune response. In many common kinds of primary AIHA, this is typically the first course of treatment and can aid in symptom improvement.

    In severe circumstances, and if these medications are ineffective, a doctor may prescribe additional medications, also referred to as immunosuppressive therapy, that inhibit the immune response. The use of this medication reduces the body’s immunological reaction. The medications aid in stopping the immune system’s attack on the bone marrow. This allows the marrow stem cells to expand and raise the red blood cell counts.

    • Splenectomy

    You might be required to remove your spleen if the medication does not work. Your spleen eliminates red blood cells containing antibodies and other abnormalities from your bloodstream. Cells that produce antibodies are also found in the spleen. The risk of anaemia can be decreased with a splenectomy by preserving red blood cells.

    • Blood Transfusion

    People with AIHA may require a blood transfusion in extreme circumstances.

    How can you prevent Autoimmune Hemolytic Anaemia?

    Some types of AIHA cannot be prevented, although doctors can closely watch patients with viral infections or those on specific medications to ensure that AIHA does not develop. Tips to lower the possibility of symptoms or problems getting worse include –

    • Wash hands often and minimise contact with ill or infected persons to lessen the risk of oral and other infections.
    • Receiving the flu & other infectious diseases vaccines every year
    • People with cold AIHA should try to stay warm because a cold atmosphere might cause red blood cells to break down.

    At Apollo Hospitals, Karnataka, we have the best doctors to help you reduce the risk of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anaemia while providing a highly effective course of treatment. Our cutting-edge infrastructure and most-advanced equipment, combined with years of medical expertise of medical professionals at Apollo Hospitals, Karnataka, all contribute to the success of our treatment approaches.

    Make a quick appointment with us if you experience any anaemia symptoms, such as fatigue, weakness, jaundice, or shortness of breath.

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