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    Stem cell transplant aka Bone Marrow Transplant
    Banner - Cancer Institute Apollo Hospital - Bangalore

    Stem Cell Transplant Aka Bone Marrow Transplant in Bangalore

    Stem cell transplantation, commonly known as bone marrow transplantation, is a challenging and life-saving treatment that involves replacing unhealthy stem cells with damaged or diseased bone marrow. The soft, spongy tissue located in the middle of the bones is called bone marrow, and it is responsible for creating all different types of blood cells, such as platelets, white blood cells, and red blood cells. In order to create the aforementioned components of blood, stem cells act as precursor cells.

    In cases of Leukaemia, myeloma, lymphoma, and other marrow-related illnesses and disorders, as well as those that result in marrow failure, stem cell transplantation is frequently used by oncologists in Bangalore to restore normal bone marrow function. If someone has any of the following medical issues, they may require a bone marrow transplant:

    • Problems of the bone marrow, such as aplastic anaemia.
    • Leukaemia or lymphoma, among other blood cancers.
    • Additional immunological dysfunctions and hereditary diseases, such as sickle cell anaemia.

    Types of Stem Cell Transplant

    The goal of a stem cell transplant is to replace unhealthy marrow cells with healthy stem cells. There are primarily two types:

    1. Autologous bone marrow transplant: An autologous transplant uses our body’s own stem cells. Bone marrow transplants are referred to as autologous if they are carried out using the patient’s own stem cells.
    2. Allogeneic bone marrow transplant: It is referred to as an allogeneic bone marrow transplant if the donor’s bone cells are used in the transplant based on their genetic compatibility. A donor is the source of the stem cells for an allogenic transplant. After the patient has undergone chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, the donor’s stem cells are administered to the patient.

    Medical Conditions handled by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    • Leukaemia: A bone marrow transplant is frequently used to treat various types of Leukaemia, including acute myeloid Leukaemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL), and chronic myeloid Leukaemia (CML).
    • Lymphoma: A bone marrow transplant may be necessary as part of the medical oncology treatment in Bangalore for several types of lymphoma, including Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
    • Aplastic Anaemia: A rare illness known as aplastic anaemia occurs when the bone marrow is unable to produce an adequate quantity of new blood cells. Transplanting bone marrow can increase the body’s supply of healthy stem cells.
    • Multiple Myeloma: Cancer can damage the plasma cells in the bone marrow.
    • Inherited Blood Disorders: BMT is used to treat a number of genetic diseases, including sickle cell disease, thalassemia, and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID).

     Who is an ideal candidate for a Stem Cell Transplant?

    Stem cell transplants are often employed in the treatment of terminal blood disorders or cancers. However, this treatment cannot be performed on everyone with such circumstances. Doctors take the following aspects into account:

    1. Overall well-being and the patient’s health condition: For instance, individuals undergoing stem cell transplants must first undergo extensive chemotherapy. The doctors will assess their ability to control conditioning side effects and handle any negative effects from the transplant.
    2. Patient’s health situation: It is important to note that stem cell transplants don’t always cure blood or cancer diseases.
    3. Previous therapies: Certain medical procedures can impact the success of transplants.
    4. Origin of the healthy stem cells: Doctors evaluate the possibility of transplanting a patient’s own healthy stem cells. If this is not feasible, they will search for donors whose stem cells match those of the patient. The search typically begins with close relatives before considering online databases and stem cell registries. If there is an insufficient availability of donor cells, your medical condition may not be treatable with a stem cell transplant.

    Bone Marrow Transplant Procedure

    Before the Procedure

    To determine whether the patient is physically capable of handling the transplantation processes, the healthcare professional will conduct the following tests:

    1. Electrocardiogram (EKG)
    2. Echocardiogram
    3. Computed tomography (CT) scan
    4. Complete blood count (CBC)
    5. Biopsy

    Prior to the blood tests, a central venous catheter (CVC) may be inserted into one of the large veins in the upper chest area. CVCs are tubes that doctors use as central lines to draw blood, administer medicine, and provide fluids. CVCs minimise the need for frequent needle sticks to insert intravenous tubes or draw blood throughout the transplantation procedure.

    During the Procedure

    The Medical Oncologist in Bangalore will collect blood from the patient if they are receiving their own stem cells, in order to separate the healthy stem cells for transplant. This is done by connecting veins from both arms to a cell separating machine. The machine draws blood from one arm, filters it to isolate the stem cells, and returns it through the other arm. The process is not painful. To ensure an adequate supply of stem cells for the transplant, the doctor may need to draw blood multiple times. The stem cells are then delivered via CVC during the actual transplant procedure.

    After the Transplant

    Within a period of two to four weeks following the transplant, the stem cells will begin grafting to the bone marrow. Subsequently, they will start producing white blood cells, platelets, and red blood cells. If the stem cells come from a donor, the patient will need to take antibiotics and anti-rejection medications to help the body accept the transfused cells. They may also require nourishment, platelet transfusions, and red blood cell transfusions. Before the patient’s immune system starts functioning properly, they may need to stay in the hospital for a month. It is important for the patient to attend their scheduled appointments so that the doctors can monitor for any issues in the bone marrow and blood.

    Are there any complications related to Stem Cell/Bone Marrow Transplant?

    The main risk is that the patient may undergo the procedure, but the transplanted stem cells might not be able to effectively treat or cure the illness. The problems associated with autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation can vary.

    One potential complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation is graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), which occurs when the immune system of the donor attacks the newly formed stem cells. The potential consequences of GVHD can vary depending on factors such as your overall health, age, and past treatments. Your doctor will explain the possible complications if you are considering a stem cell transplant, so that you can compare the risks and benefits.

    Treatment at Apollo Hospitals, karnataka

    The bone marrow transplant team at Apollo Hospital, Karnataka, is skilled in performing both autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplants to treat a variety of blood-related illnesses. We are proud to be recognized as the best Medical Oncology Hospital in Bangalore, providing a compassionate and personalised approach to patient care. Our well-equipped laboratory operates 24/7, conducting all necessary testing for stem cell transplants. Our dedicated top oncologists in Bangalore are available on call, not just during scheduled appointments, but anytime the patient needs assistance. At Apollo Hospitals, we bring together some of the best Medical Oncologists in Bangalore and accomplished superspecialists in the field to deliver comprehensive medical treatment.

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