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    Bone Sarcoma
    Banner - Cancer Institute Apollo Hospital - Bangalore

    Bone Sarcoma – Bone Cancer in Bangalore

    A sarcoma of the bone is an aggressive cancerous growth arising from the bones and joints of the skeletal system. These sarcomas have the propensity to spread to other organs in the body and pose a threat to life if left untreated. Bone Sarcomas are primary malignant bone tumours that develop in the bones and can readily spread to connective tissue, including muscle, fat, tendons, cartilage, ligaments, blood vessels, and nerves.

    Who is affected by Bone sarcoma? Bone sarcomas can affect people of all ages. Bone Sarcoma is more frequently found in children and teenagers as compared to adults.

    Types of Bone Sarcomas

    Doctors have identified over 70 known subtypes of sarcoma. The most common types of Bone Sarcomas include the following:

    • Adamantinoma
    • Chondrosarcoma
    • Chordoma
    • Ewing’s sarcoma
    • Fibrosarcoma
    • Osteosarcoma
    • Pleomorphic sarcoma

    Of the above-mentioned Bone Sarcomas, Osteosarcoma is the most commonly found type.

    Causes of Bone Sarcoma

    Like many other forms of cancer, the primary cause behind Bone Sarcomas has not been identified yet. In general, bone sarcomas occur when a mutation happens in the DNA of the bone cells, and they develop into cancer cells that grow in an unregulated way. This unregulated growth of cells eventually leads to the formation of a mass or tumour that can invade nearby healthy tissues.

    Symptoms of Bone Sarcoma

    Many times, sarcomas do not present any significant symptoms in the early stages. They may develop symptoms as the mass increases in size and starts to press on other organs. Symptoms also depend on the size and location of the mass. Some common symptoms of bone sarcomas include:

    • Bone pain
    • Swelling and tenderness near the affected area
    • Easily fractured bones
    • Joint stiffness
    • Fatigue
    • Unintended weight loss
    • Limping
    • Anaemia
    • Fever

    Risk Factors of Bone Sarcoma

    Although there is no known cause of Bone Sarcomas, certain risk factors can put people at an increased risk of developing bone cancer. These include:

    1. Certain genetic conditions like Gardner syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, La-Fraumeni syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, retinoblastoma, tuberous sclerosis, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and Werner syndrome.
    2. Radiation therapy from previous cancer treatments.
    3. Exposure to certain harmful chemicals.
    4. Chronic swelling in the arms and long (Lymphedema)

    Diagnosing Bone Sarcoma

    Doctors need to perform a thorough physical exam and medical history evaluation and run a series of tests to reach a final diagnosis. A correct and timely diagnosis will help the doctors to devise a treatment plan based on the location and staging of the cancer. Common tests done to diagnose and stage a bone sarcoma include:

    • Biopsy
    • Blood tests
    • Bone scan
    • Computed Tomography (CT) scan
    • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • PET scan
    • Plain Radiographs
    • X-ray

    Treating Bone Sarcoma

    Treating bone sarcoma will require a multidisciplinary approach. Sarcomas are treated with the guidance of a multidisciplinary team of cancer specialists who formulate a tailored plan. This team may include surgeons, radiologists, medical oncologists (cancer specialists), radiation oncologists, pathologists, etc. Doctors will prepare a treatment plan for patients depending on several factors like the type of sarcoma, its size and location, the general health of the patient, and whether the sarcoma is newly diagnosed or returned.

    Bone sarcomas need to be treated by following modalities (either alone or in combination):

    1. Chemotherapy: Helps shrink tumours and make surgery possible
    2. Limb Salvage Surgery: Enables safe removal of bone sarcoma with appropriate reconstruction to allow mobility.
    3. Radiotherapy: In the case of Ewing’s sarcoma

    Other treatment approaches may include targeted therapy, immunotherapy (biological therapy), and thermal ablation. Palliative care aimed at improving the quality of life may be provided for seriously ill patients.

    Coping with Bone Sarcoma Treatment

    Cancer treatment is not an easy feat. People often find it hard and overwhelming to deal with cancer and its treatment. The treatment can be taxing physically as well as emotionally. To cope with the physical side effects of the treatment, it is important to talk to the doctors and inform them of any change in the symptoms. Any queries must be directed to the healthcare providers. The doctors will do their best to help patients deal with any unpleasant symptoms.

    Social workers, counsellors, and family members can help deal with the emotional stress of the treatment. Patients are advised to share their feelings and not hold any pent-up stress. Medical experts can help patients cope with the emotional stress associated with Bone Sarcoma treatment.

    Bone Sarcoma Follow-up Treatment

    People who have successfully undergone bone sarcoma treatment will need follow-up care to ensure that cancer does not return. Bone sarcoma is aggressive cancer with a tendency to return in many cases.

    Here is what type of follow-up care may be required for Bone Sarcoma Patients:

    • Periodic test to check for recurrence of cancer
    • Managing the long-term side effects of cancer treatment.
    • Screening to determine who in the family is at risk of developing cancer if a person has a family history of cancer.
    • Asking people to keep health records and inform the doctor if any new symptoms occur.

    Apollo Hospitals, Karnataka, has a dedicated team of cancer specialists with years of experience in successfully treating various types of bone sarcomas in children and adults. With specially trained medical experts and advanced technological infrastructure, Apollo Hospitals, Karnataka, provide the best cancer treatment for Bone Sarcomas.

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