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    Bone Metastases
    Banner - Cancer Institute Apollo Hospital - Bangalore

    Bone Metastases Treatment in Bangalore

    Metastatic bone disease is a type of cancer that starts in one part of the body, such as an organ, gland, or tissue, and then spreads to the bones. About 50% of cancers that begin in an organ can spread (metastasise) to the bones. Although bone metastases can affect any bone, it more frequently affects the spine, pelvis, and thigh. The bone may deteriorate to the point that even light stress or low-demand activities might cause it to fracture.

    Depending on how far cancer has progressed, which bones are impacted, and how severely the afflicted bones have been damaged, bone metastases can have a different impact on a patient. However, there are several treatment alternatives that can support patients in managing pain while preserving their degree of autonomy and activity.

    Signs & Symptoms of Bone Metastases

    Numerous cancer patients often get bone metastases and have no visible symptoms. Because your bone structure alters as a result of bone metastases, you may occasionally experience excruciating pain and neurological damage. When it happens, bone metastasis might show the following signs and symptoms:

    • Bone Pain
    • Bone fractures
    • Urinary incontinence
    • Bowel incontinence
    • Weakening in the arms or legs
    • A low level of red blood cells and anaemia are brought on by bone marrow loss.
    • Blood calcium levels that are too high can make people ill and make them feel dizzy, nauseous, and sick to their stomachs.

    Causes of Bone Metastases

    It is unknown why certain cancers spread to other organs while others do not. Up to 70% of people with certain cancers, such as metastatic breast cancer or advanced prostate cancer, develop bone metastases. There are three causes of cancer spreading to the bones:

    • Blood Flow – Bone and bone marrow get an excess of blood flow. Cancer cells have the ability to spread throughout the body once they enter blood arteries.
    • Adhesive Molecules – Tumour cells release adhesive chemicals that can reach bone and bone marrow. This might trigger the tumour to send signals for further bone loss and tumour growth within the bone.
    • Growth Factors – Numerous growth factors are linked to the bone. Cell division, growth, and maturation are signalled by these growth factors, which are produced as cancer spreads to the bone and encourages the development of tumour cells.

    Diagnosis of Bone Metastases

    Several diagnostic tests might be carried out to determine the cause if you exhibit symptoms of bone metastases, including-

    • X-Rays – Until they are extremely advanced, bone metastases frequently do not appear on standard X-rays. X-rays are usually effective at detecting osteolytic lesions.
    • Bone Scan – Early bone metastases may be discovered via a bone scan. Patients who have known bone metastases are additionally monitored using bone imaging.
    • CT Scan – If cancer has progressed to the bone, CT scan pictures can demonstrate this.
    • MRI – When evaluating nerve roots that are being pushed on by a tumour or bone fragments, an MRI is helpful.
    • Blood Tests – The diagnosis of bone metastases does not involve any particular blood testing. Blood tests can indicate bone lesions, but radiological tests, symptoms, and the kind of cancer determine the final diagnosis.
    • Biopsy – To evaluate the lesion for cancer cells, a biopsy may be performed. The location of the tumour determines the kind of biopsy that is performed.

    Treatment of Bone Metastases

    It’s critical to treat bone metastases since doing so can lessen symptoms and enhance the quality of life. The best course of action for bone metastases is frequently to treat the primary region of cancer. These therapies are either local or systemic. The treatment of bone metastases may also include physical therapy, clinical trials, and pain management.

    • Chemotherapy, targeted treatment, immunotherapy, and hormone therapy address underlying cancer and have the ability to destroy cancer cells throughout the body, including those that have metastasised to the bone.
    • Radionuclide Therapy – A radioactive substance is injected into the body, where it enters the bone. Cancer cells are destroyed by radiation, which also lowers pain.
    • Radiation Therapy – Using high-energy X-rays to kill cancer cells.
    • Bone Cement – Utilised to treat fractures brought on by bone metastases. The bone is strengthened or stabilised with bone cement.
    • Fractures can be treated, stabilised, and prevented with the use of rods, screws, pins, plates, and cages.

    Risk Factors Associated with Bone Metastases

    Almost all cancers have the potential to metastasise to the bones, but the ones that do so most frequently are the following:

    • Breast cancer
    • Lung cancer
    • Lymphoma
    • Kidney cancer
    • Prostate cancer
    • Thyroid cancer
    • Multiple myeloma

    The Prognosis for Patients with Bone Metastases

    Bone metastases are a kind of advanced-stage cancer. The removal of every cancer cell is frequently very complicated. To lessen the size of metastases and slow their growth, a range of treatments are undertaken by the top oncologists at Apollo Hospitals, Karnataka. The primary approach is to lessen pain and other symptoms while enhancing lifespan and quality of life with the help of world-class facilities and cutting-edge technology at the Apollo Hospitals, Karnataka.

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