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    Deformity Correction and Paediatric Orthopaedics

    Deformity Correction and Paediatric Orthopaedics

    Orthopaedics is the branch of medical science that deals with the correction of structural and musculoskeletal deformities. A subset of orthopaedics is paediatric orthopaedics, which deals with the treatment and correction of musculoskeletal deformities in children. Paediatric orthopaedics focuses on the treatment of deformities in the hands, wrists, arms, hips, knees, ankles, and feet.

    At Apollo Hospitals, the top Pediatric Orthopaedic Hospital in Bangalore, we provide patient-centric customised medical treatment with the utmost care and attention for our paediatric patients. Our paediatric team of doctors, including surgeons and consultants, possesses acute clinical acumen and opts for a multidisciplinary approach to treat a wide range of conditions related to musculoskeletal trauma, spinal deformities and diseases, sports-related trauma, degenerative diseases, congenital and developmental deformities and conditions, and even cancerous tumours. Backed by state-of-the-art medical and surgical facilities, we are committed to providing the best paediatric orthopaedic services to our patients.

    Conditions Treated

    As part of paediatric orthopaedic treatment at Apollo Hospitals, we offer solutions for a range of paediatric conditions, including the treatment of general and genetic conditions, as well as conditions affecting the elbows and shoulders, feet and ankles, hips and knees, and the spine.

    General Conditions:


    Fractures are broken bones resulting from trauma or injury, such as accidental impacts or falls. In children, fractures are usually treated by applying a cast to restrict bone movement and ensure proper healing.

    Limb Length Inequality

    This condition involves one limb being longer than the other, potentially affecting daily life quality. While often harmless, evaluation by a physician is essential to determine the need for treatment and its timing. Surgery may be performed to either lengthen or shorten a limb.

    Bone Cyst

    Bone cysts are non-cancerous, fluid-filled growths within bones that can cause pain and inflammation as they grow. Symptoms might not be present, but they could eventually lead to bone fractures. Treatment varies based on the child’s needs, cyst size, and symptoms. Options may include draining the cyst through a series of injections or surgical intervention to eliminate any remaining cyst cells.

    Genetic Conditions:

    Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita

    This condition refers to the occurrence of multiple contractures at birth, causing permanent tightening of the skin, muscles, and tendons, which leads to joint stiffness as well as shortening of limb length. Non-interventional treatment options include physical therapy, stretching exercises, and joint manipulation techniques. Surgical treatment may rarely be required for this condition.


    Achondroplasia is a congenital disorder in which the cartilage tissue of the foetal skeleton does not develop properly, leading to dwarfism with the upper parts of the limbs being shorter than the lower parts. Surgery may be performed to manage potential complications.

    Skeletal Dysplasia

    Skeletal dysplasia, commonly known as dwarfism, is a term that encompasses hundreds of congenital bone or cartilage disorders that affect growth and shape. Treatment for skeletal dysplasia is unique for each individual patient, depending on their symptoms and requirements. Surgical intervention may be necessary to correct certain bone deformities, reduce brainstem compression, improve breathing by removing tonsils and/or adenoids, etc.

    Foot and Ankle Conditions:


    Clubfoot is a condition in which a baby is born with improperly shaped or deformed feet. This is usually caused by the shorter length of connecting tissues that join the muscles to the bones and is commonly diagnosed at birth. Stretching and casting methods may be applied in the first few weeks after birth to correct the deformity. Surgical repair may be considered if the deformity is severe or if non-interventional treatment isn’t able to resolve the problem.

    Toe Walking

    Walking on the toes or the balls of the feet can be caused by various reasons, both serious and non-serious, and can often be corrected without any treatment. However, if it becomes problematic, physical therapy, leg braces, and casting may help restore normal walking patterns. If these methods fail to produce results, surgery may be considered to lengthen the muscles or tendons at the back of the lower leg.

    Hip and Knee Conditions:

    Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH)

    This is a condition that affects the hip joints in babies and may even start before they are born. The goal of treatment may be to position the ball of the hip in the socket and maintain it that way so that the joint can grow normally. This can be achieved through bracing, casting, or surgical intervention to hold the hip in place.

    Gait Abnormalities

    Gait refers to the walking pattern of an individual, which can be affected by injuries and medical conditions. This may involve limping, taking short steps, shuffling, and dragging the feet, among other abnormalities. Physical therapy and strengthening exercises may help correct these abnormalities, but surgical intervention might be necessary if other non-interventional procedures do not yield positive results.

    Hands and Feet:

    • Syndactyly

    Syndactyly is a condition in which a baby is born with webbed or fused fingers or toes. It is one of the most common defects in babies and is usually present and diagnosed at birth. Surgical intervention is required to separate the fingers or toes through skin grafting.

    • Polydactyly

    Polydactyly is a condition in which babies are born with extra fingers or toes. In this condition, babies can have both webbed and extra fingers or toes. This condition may also be present and diagnosed at birth, and it may or may not require treatment. The most common treatment for polydactyly is the surgical removal of the extra fingers or toes.

    • Short Stature

    Short stature is a condition characterised by a short growth of height and may be referred to as dwarfism. It can indicate various disorders or underlying conditions, including malnutrition, hormonal disorders, and certain genetic predispositions. Appropriate treatment for short stature depends on the underlying cause of the deformity and may include hormonal therapy and surgical intervention if required.

    • Bowed Legs

    Bowed legs are a structural deformity in the legs that causes the legs to bend outwards like bows. Surgical correction is the only way to treat the bowed leg condition in children.

    • Knock Knees

    Knock knees are another structural deformity in the legs where the knees tilt inwards and touch, while the ankles remain separated and spaced apart during a normal standing posture. Non-surgical treatment may be sought before employing surgical treatment to straighten the legs and treat the knock knee condition.

    • Flat Feet

    Flat feet is a deformity of the feet in which the person walks with full flatness of the feet. Treatment may not be necessary if it does not cause painful symptoms. However, physical therapy, stretching exercises, and using orthotic devices can help correct the flat feet condition. Surgery may be required to treat pain, as well as to repair the bone and tendon problems.

    Spine Conditions:

    • Kyphosis

    Kyphosis is a spinal deformity condition in which the spine becomes rounded, causing the person to have a hunchback. While rounding of the upper part of the spine is normal, excessive bending can lead to breathing trouble and pain. It can occur as a birth defect or as a result of poor posture in childhood. The use of spinal braces and physical therapy may help treat mild conditions, but severe bending may require surgical correction.

    • Scoliosis

    Scoliosis is another congenital spine defect that causes the spine to take on an unusual shape and bend to the side, leading to tilting of the head and unevenness in the shoulders, hips, and waistline. Back braces may be helpful, along with physical therapy, but surgical intervention is often required to straighten the spine. Rods may be placed to correct the spine’s alignment, or spinal fusion surgery may be performed to address this deformity.

    • Spina bifida

    Myelomeningocele, also known as Spina Bifida, is a congenital deformity in which a baby’s backbone and spinal canal do not close before birth. It is characterised by the presence of a fluid-filled sac that protrudes from the back of the baby’s body. It can occur anywhere along the spine, but it is most commonly found in the lower spinal region. Surgical correction of this deformity may be necessary at birth or even before birth, while the baby is in the womb. Medication may also be required for lifelong protection against infections, in addition to physical therapy.

    At Apollo Hospitals, Karnataka, we offer state-of-the-art comprehensive medical care for your child’s bone and joint health, including the treatment of structural deformities. Our team of top Paediatrics Ortho Doctors in Bangalore is supported by paediatric physiotherapists and occupational therapists to address all aspects of paediatric orthopaedic care. We provide comprehensive treatment and rehabilitation support for promoting healthy living and development.

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