Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR)

Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR)


Fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurement involves determining the ratio between the maximum achievable blood flow in a diseased coronary artery and the theoretical maximum flow in a normal coronary artery. An FFR of 1.0 is widely accepted as normal. An FFR lower than 0.75-0.80 is generally considered to be associated with myocardial ischemia (MI).

FFR is easily measured during routine coronary angiography by using a pressure wire to calculate the ratio between coronary pressure distal to a coronary artery stenosis and aortic pressure under conditions of maximum myocardial hyperemia.

Major Indications:

  • To determine the physiologic and hemodynamic significance of an angiographically intermediate coronary stenosis
  • To identify appropriate culprit lesion(s) in multi-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD)
  • To measure the functional importance of stenosis in the presence of distal collateral flow
  • To identify the precise location of a coronary lesion when the angiographic image is unclear
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