Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) has become a very common surgery nowadays. Thousands of patients undergo this surgery all over the world every day. There are many technical advances in this surgery of late, the surgeon now operates on most of the patients when the heart is beating, unlike earlier days when the heart was stopped with the use of the heart lung machine. With the ‘beating heart’ surgery (also called ‘off pump’ surgery), quite a few complications have been avoided. However all post CABG patients have to take some precautions and follow some simple modifications in their lifestyle to improve the quality of life, as well as to prevent future recurrence of the problem.
Guidelines to be followed by all post CABG patients in order to lead an almost normal life and improve their longevity:
- Regular medical follow-up and check-up of various parameters is absolutely essential, not only to ensure that everything is all right with the patient, but also to recognize at the earliest any complication of the surgery or side effects of medications.
- Many patients do not realize, that even after CABG, a lot of medications have to be taken to prevent future blocks as well as to control other conditions like hypertension, diabetes, and high cholesterol levels.
- CABG is not a cure, it is only a palliative It is not a permanent cure and so, a lot of precautions have to be taken to avoid future problems and to keep the graft vessels patent. Therefore, patients have to take their medications regularly.
- Ideally, the patient should be seen 2-3 months after the surgery and thereafter every six months with all necessary investigations to ensure maintenance of optimal health condition.
Lifestyle and hobbies
All post CABG patients should cultivate good habits and hobbies to keep their body, mind and spirit in a healthy state. A disciplined lifestyle with regular timing of meals, good food habits, planning for some regular physical exercise and recreational activities, is essential. In fact these habits and hobbies are good for everyone, irrespective of whether they are coronary artery disease patients or post CABG patients.
Taking food and medications on time, exercising regularly, taking holidays and vacations and practising relaxation techniques like yoga and meditation on a regular basis, are some of the practices that all these patients must follow.
Diet and exercise
- Diet and exercise are the two most important factors in reducing the risk for coronary artery disease and in preventing its recurrence.
- Diet has to be specially planned for each individual, depending on whether the person has obesity, diabetes, hypertension or high cholesterol.
- In general, there has to be control of total calorie intake – usually less than 1,600 Kcalper day.
- The diet should be low in carbohydrates, low in fat, low in saturated fat, low in cholesterol and high in fibre.
- Each patient should be given customized guidelines for his/her dietary regimen. There are various diet charts available, but the best way to control the diet is to modify the patient’sown usual diet pattern suitably, without introducing new foods and cutting away the preferred ones. For example, low sodium diet and low saturated fat diet are good for patients with hypertension. This should be achieved by modifying the quantity of the food and the amount of salt in the usual food rather than introducing some new food items in the diet.