Nowadays, almost every second person that you meet is a sugar patient. Diabetes has become common just like a seasonal cough and cold, and India is among the top three countries which has high number of diabetic patients. Here, in this blog, we will discuss about what diabetes is, why it happens, how it is caused and how to prevent it.
What is Diabetes?
Diabetes, commonly called diabetes mellitus by the doctors, refers to a set of metabolic diseases in which the patient has high levels of blood sugar, either because of inadequate production of insulin, a hormone secreted by the Pancreas, or because the body cells do not respond appropriately to insulin, or both. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience increasing thirst (polydipsia) and hunger (polyphagia) and will frequently urinate (polyuria).
Diabetes is basically of three types:
● Type 1 Diabetes: where the body does not produce insulin at all. Almost 10% people suffer from type 1.
● Type 2 Diabetes: the body does not produce sufficient amount of insulin for proper bodily functions. Almost 90% people suffer from type 2 worldwide.
● Gestational Diabetes: this type affects some females when they are pregnant.
Why it happens?
In a healthy human being, the pancreas, an organ which is a part of our digestive and endocrine system and is located behind the stomach, releases insulin, a hormone that breaks down your food to use and store the sugar from it. In a diabetic condition, pancreas either does not release insulin at all or in a very small quantity interrupting the normal functions of the body. In either of the cases, it is required that the patient must be given extra insulin to carry out the functions normally. A diabetic patient can live a normal live by following certain dietary changes and taking some medicines as recommended by the Endocrinologist, but so far there has been no cure found for the disease.
What causes Diabetes?
There may be numerous reasons for a person to have diabetes. Below we have highlighted some of the common causes. However, these are not just it and also the causes may differ from person to person. Though the exact cause is not known, scientists have related one or more of the factors to cause different types of diabetes.
Causes – Type 1 Diabetes
● Destruction of insulin-producing cells of the pancreas, because of which the sugar builds up in the bloodstream and is not carried to the body cells.
● Genetic factors can also cause it.
● Environmental condition can hamper with insulin production.
Causes – Type 2 diabetes
● It can be caused if, somehow, your cells become resistant to the function of insulin and your pancreas is incapable of producing more insulin to overcome the resistance. The result is that the sugar builds up in the bloodstream and is not carried to the body cells.
● Genetic factors can cause type 2 as well.
● Obesity is strongly related to this type of diabetes, but that does not mean that everyone with this type is obese.
Cause – Gestational diabetes
Pregnancy is a phase for all females where their body undergoes severe changes. The placenta produces various hormones to sustain the pregnancy and these hormones, sometimes, make your cells resistant to the insulin. In a normal case, the pancreas produces more insulin to fight the resistance, but in some cases, the pancreas can do it. When this happens, the glucose accumulates in the bloodstream causing gestational diabetes.
How to prevent diabetes?
As mentioned earlier, diabetes has no cure, but it can be definitely be prevented and managed by following tips:
● Assess your risk to be diabetic
Consult your doctor on a regular basis
● Eat balanced and diet
● Exercise daily
● Keep your blood pressure under control
● Keep your heart healthy
● Keep your weight under control
● Limit the food from outside.
● Limit your alcohol consumption
● Quit smoking
By making some healthy changes in your lifestyle, you can easily reduce the risk of getting this disease. Remember that prevention is always better than cure!