Meninigitis is an infection that inflamates the meningis that may be either duramatar or arachnodmatar and piamatar. The causative agents may include bacteria virus and fungi
Symptoms and Diagnosis:
The symptoms include fever, neck pain and purpura. Mainly increased intracranial pressure can be observed. Other nonspecific symptoms include Headache, dizziness and vomiting.
Evaluation of Meningitis is mainly done by CSF analysis, culture, through lumbar puncture. The finding shall be differentiated by the cause that is either bacteria, fungal or viral.
Treatment and Management:
Sepsis management should be done by maintaining the oxygenation and giving sufficient IV fluids with proper fever control. Other criteria includes patient demographics and passed medical history for providing best coverage.
Drugs include antibiotics ceftriaxone, vancomycin, ampicillin, cefepime, cefotaxime. Including steroid therapy, with first dose of antibiotics may help reduce morbidity and mortality.
Chemoprophylasis is indicated for close contacts of meningitis patients. Contacts spread through housemates, sharing utensils, mouth to mouth resuscitation. The drugs under this include rifampicin ciprofloxaxcin and ceftriaxone.
Raising awareness of meningitis and all its clinical symptoms and practical support toward families and sufferers to some extent. Bacterial Meningitis is still being unresolved in clinical medicine despite model antibiotics and improved medical care.
Despite diagnosis, treatment, and vaccinations the reported cases of meningitis world wide were 8.7 million. The mortality and morbidity rates are being increased and patients can prevent the disease by maintaining good hygiene like washing hands prior to eating and preventing sharing of food.
Conjugate vaccines of pneumoniae in early childhood may help prevent the disease in later stages.
The primary prevention includes
- Vaccination, and avoidance of conditions that encourage spread.
- Secondary prevention includes early diagnosis and initiation of treatment.
- Admission, monitoring of patients who are susceptible to develop complications.
- Chemoprophylaxis for suspected patients.